SHIN YANG FORESTRY SDN. BHD.
FOREST PLANTATION MANAGEMENT PLAN
LPF/0019 – Masama FPMU
(VERSION 08-Revised on June 2019)
1. INTRODUCTION OF MASAMA FPMU
The Masama Forest Plantation Management Plan (FPMU) was part of Masama Estate, which has been granted under License for Planted Forest LPF/0019 with total gross area of Masama Estate was 25,730ha (divided into 10 coupes) and classified as Permanent Forest Estate (PFE) under the Anap Protected Forest. LPF0019 Masama Estate was managing by Shin Yang Forestry Sdn. Bhd. (SYF) commencing from 19 November 1999 to 18 November 2059.
The area had been certified for Forest Management (Forest Plantation) under the Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme (MTCS) was covering from Coupe 1 to Coupe 5 with total area of 11,946ha (refer Figure 1.0 and Table 1.0). About 70.42% from the total FPMU area is plantable areas, and the balance of 29.58% is reserved in situ for NCR claims, Terrain IV, Buffer zone, water catchment and others conservation area.
Table 1.0: Details of the Masama FPMU area
The Masama FPMU area is covered mainly by logged over hill mixed Dipterocarp forests. The logging licenses covering the whole site are T/4212 and this logging activities is still going. The FPMU site is about 120km South and Southwest of Bintulu town. The approximate grid reference of the Tatau area is between latitudes 2º19.07’N - 2º32.76’N, and longitudes 112º51.35’E - 113º02.03’E.
3. MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVE
The management objective of the plantation is to enable a continuous supply of timber for downstream processing activities (plywood, veneer and particle board) especially for Shin Yang Group of wood processing plants. There is also the global sentiment to source for timber from planted forest instead of from natural forests. Planted forests have the advantage of planned and timed production, uniformity of logs and automation in the processing plants. They will also help to reduce harvesting pressure on the remaining natural forests.
Besides that, forest management also has the following objective:
Optimum utilization of forest resources while ensuring ecological function
Regulation of harvest on a sustainable yield basis
To reduce environmental impact
To promote natural forest conservation, restoration and enhancement within FPMU
To maintain or enhance the long-term social and economic well-being of workers and local communities
4. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The forest plantation management is committed to Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) which is the process of managing forest plantation site to achieve one or more clearly specified objectives of management with regard to the production of a continuous flow of desired forest products and services without undue reduction in its inherent values and future productivity and without undue undesirable effects on the physical and social environment
5. FOREST RESOURCE DESCRIPTION
5.1 Geology Soil
The geology of the area is Central-North Sarawak type which is underlain by rocks referred to the Northwest Borneo Geosyncline. The rocks are sedimentary type of the Palaeogene series. The area may be underlain stratigraphically by the Baram Group where the main lithological features are those of shale, marl, limestone and standstone.The main soil type in Masama FPMU area was the Kapit/Merit series. The Skeletal soils represented mainly by the Kapit series and Kapit/Merit series dominate most of the forest plantation site. The Kapit and Kapit/Merit soils are common in hilly areas in the forest plantation area. The Merit/Bekenu/Kapit soils are found on the North-western part of Masama area meanwhile, the Merit/Bekenu soils are found in the south-western part of Masama area.
5.2 Growing Timber Stock
The forest in FPMU area is a hill mixed dipterocarp forest that has been disturbed by logging and agricultural activities. There is only limited large diameter tree were recorded in the area as it was heavily logged over before, leaving only several tree which either too small for harvest or has no economic value.
5.3 Non-timber Growing Stock
Non-timber products are mainly used by local community; mostly from Beketan dan Iban community. Much of their products are wild vegetable & fruits, wild animal & fishery for their meat, and agricultural products such as bamboo and rattan. These products are abundant at Masama area and along main rivers.
6. ENVIRONMENTAL LIMITATION
The FPMU site is undulating to hilly condition with slope of 6° to more than 30°. This terrain factor causes difficulty to access some area during the wet season (November until February) and the steep terrain has high potential to soil erosion during heavy rain. The mean annual rainfall is deduced to be about 548.595mm per month. Average rainy days are about 18days per month.
7. LAND USE
Masama FPMU area was formerly within Anap Forest Reserve and under the Forest Timber Licence T/4212. This forest plantation area was previously covered mainly by logged over hill mixed Dipterocarp forest. A large portion of the forest plantation area would be subjected to NCR claims because of shifting cultivation by several longhouses located along the Sungai Anap River. Most of these settlements had cultivated the land near to their respective settlement for hill padi and other annual crops. Small patches of temuda/pulau could be seen along some of the logging road.
Development of the plantation involves several stages such as project site investigation, nursery establishment, plantation buildings and amenities, land preparation, construction of infrastructure, field establishment, maintenance and abandonment and replanting.
8. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION
A total of 6 longhouses are located within and adjacent to Masama FPMU. The approximate location of the longhouses were shown in Figure 2.0. The main communities living here are the Iban and Beketan. As mixed marriages exist, others ethnic also present such as Kayan, Kenyah, and etc. Their main religions are pagan and Christian with only one family is Muslim. Table 2.0 show the summary of the 6 longhouses that are directly affected by the development of the Masama FPMU.
Table 2.0: List of longhouses within and adjacent to Masama FPMU
The main occupation of the people was farming. About 60% were farmers while the rest working with government agencies and private companies at various cities such as Bintulu, Kuching, Miri and Sibu. A small number of locals work with our company. The main crops of the local communities was plated hill padi which were grown by shifting cultivation, and annual crops (maize, vegetables) in addition to some fruit trees, oil palm and pepper.
A boarding primary school, SK Nanga Tau and a small, rural clinic (Klinik Desa Ng. Tau) were establish by related government agency in the area to cater for education and helath needs of the local community.
There was no direct electricity supply to the longhouses. The people used their own generator. There was also no reliable water supply although most of the longhouses have gravity pipe water. Every door has at least a large water storage tank supplied by the Medical Department.
9. PLANTATION ESTABLISHMENT
9.1. Choice Of Species
The FPMU is established with a mix of trees species both exotic and indigenous species with the predominant species are Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria. Minor species include Neolamarckia cadamba, Acacia auriculiformis, Duabanga molucana, Eucalyptus spp. and Azadirachta excelsa. The latter will be established on a small scale of trial basis and will be closely monitored by the Company. If proven successful to meet the Company’s needs in short rotation its establishment will be undertaken on a larger scale.
9.2. Nursery Practices
Areas of a few hectares with good terrain and water sources were already identified on the ground/camp site for establishment of nurseries by taking consider the distance from nursery to the planting point. Nursery practice has been standardized after repeated research, and to be followed to the various species. The annual production targets is set based on the planting target plus allowance for nursery mortality, culling rejects, and mortality during transit and after planting in the field.
9.3. Site Preparation
The objective of land preparation is to improve potential tree growth, survival, and uniformly of a crop about to be planted. Through appropriate land preparation, factors that limit tree growth such as poor drainage weed competition, frost, and heavy slash and compacted or naturally dense soils are reduced. In area where there is standing remnant forest, the Company is interested to practise enrichment planting. This involves land clearing only and the environmental impact will be much reduced.
Some areas will also undergo liberation thinning to provide more growing space for better trees to grow at their maximum rate, yielding the next harvest in as short a time as possible.
Thinning involves in two stages:
Upon canopy closing - Basically, this stage applies when the trees reach age of two to three years for fast growing species.
Based on the PSPs data - This thinning practice will be applied to boost the tree growth if the trees in plantation site still in small diameter as it already reach age five to seven years.
10.2. Pest And Disease Control
In the event that pests or disease are found to affect the Plantation, and the management has decided that control measures are to be implemented, the control measures will include:
Changing the species planted in the affected areas or use more resistant clones;
Eliminating the organism or known sources from the plantation area;
Avoiding conditions that are conducive to the survival of the pest/ disease organisms;
Adjust and refine silvicultural practice;
Direct control using insecticide, fungicides or other biocides; and
Biological control using natural enemies of the pests.
10.3 Weed Control
For the first cycle maintenance, weed and low shrubs which are part or the indigenous ground covers need to be slashed back at regular intervals during the initial 3 month of after planting because some species do not tolerate well competition from weeds (Grass height must not more than half height of the planted trees). For the second cycle of weed control is depend on the site condition.
11. HARVESTING PLAN
11.1 Harvesting Operation Prescription
a. Cutting Rules
The FPMU may fell any planted species of trees which are not prohibited by the Forest Rules and Wildlife Protection Ordinance. Permanent waterways with continuous flow of water throughout the year will be protected by a buffer zone (width of buffer zone is depend on the width of the stream) on both bank of the river and no activities will be permitted in this areas. . Reduce impact logging procedure – The management of forest plantation takes cognizance of the “Reduce Impact Logging, Guidelines/Procedures for Ground Based Harvesting System Using Tractor” applicable to its harvest operation.
b. Cutting Limit
The downstream processing mill for plywood and veneer is equipped with the latest technology which is enables to peel up to very small logs. Therefore, the company is proposing cutting limit above 10cm at diameter breast high (DBH).
c. Harvesting System
Harvesting system engaged are RIL and Cable Yarding system to reduce impact especially to the soil and water value, and minimize damage to the residual stand. As fast growing pioneer species need a full light condition for its good growth, that is different from natural tropical tree species, clear felling system will be applied. Protected areas such as Terrain Class IV and Riparian Buffer Zone are strictly prohibited and protected from any disturbance activities.
11.2 Period Of Harvesting
Based on the present research data available from PSPs and proposed diameter cutting limit (minimum 10cm DBH), the growth rates and rotation length for harvesting will be commenced at 10 years after planting in normal case.
11.3 Annual Allowable Cut (AAC)
The allowable cut is based on area control, in accordance with the approved General Harvesting Plan (GP) of the licensed area. The company is proposing 10 years cutting cycle, which is 5 years within FPMU area (Coupe 1 – 5) and for the next five years will be move to another coupe within the licensed area (Coupe 6 – 10). Therefore, the Annual Cutting Area (ACA) within FPMU for a period of 5 years is 1,088.40ha /year.
12. MONITORING OF FOREST GROWTH AND DYNAMIC
Proper yield plots have been set up to monitor performance of trees, growth rate of the planted forest and yield of all forest products harvested so that useful data could be procured for estimates of stocking size, quality and stand volume of the plantation. The location of each plot is randomly chosen within the FPMU area and will be measured annually. Pest and disease information is also collected at the time of assessment.
13. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARD
13.1 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report
The Environmental Impact Assessment report for the LPF0019 forest Plantation "Environmental Impact Assessment " was approved by NREB Sarawak dated 15th July 2000.
13.2 Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR)
The environmental monitoring and review is done by Ecosol Consultancy Sdn. Bhd. quarterly. The monitoring includes water course quality monitoring. The report is submitted to the NREB quarterly.
13.3 NREB Verification and Inspection Visit of The FPMU
The NREB regularly carries out routine environmental inspection on the compliance to the Terms and Conditions of the EIA Report Approval document for the project area.
13.4 Patrolling by FPMU Holder
FPMU holder has been develop patrolling schedule to ensure the protected and HCV areas is remains intact, control encroachment, fire monitoring and to prevent/control unauthorized activities in forest plantation areas.
14. IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF RARE, THREATENED AND ENDANGERED SPECIES
The guidelines used for identification and protection of ERT species of forest flora and fauna including features of special of special biological interest area:
Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1998
Sarawak Plant Red List
A Master Plan for Wildlife in Sarawak 1996
HCVF Toolkit for Malaysia
Orang Utan Strategic and Action Plan
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species at www.iucnredlist.org
Sign boards has been installed at strategic locations. The entry to FPMU area shall be limited to the unauthorized person. A schedule for monthly patrol for the year has been developed to control fire, hunting, fishing and collecting activities in the forest plantation areas.
Signage detailing the Director of Forest Circular 6/99 have been erected in front of the entrance detailing 4 items:
Employees of the Timber Companies are not to hunt in the licensed areas while they are in the employ of the company.
Company vehicles are not to be used for hunting or for carrying meat of wild animals.
Selling of wild animals or meat of wild animals is not allowed in the licensed area.
Feeder roads are to be closed after the final block inspection to prevent further entry of vehicles.
15. HIGH CONSERVATION VALUE (HCVs)
Identification of the protection areas in FPMU area is carried out based on guidelines High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) Toolkit for Malaysia. Masama (in-part) FPMU HCVs assessment was carried out by Sarawak Forestry Corporation on 21st – 27th May 2015. Sub-teams assessed biodiversity, ecosystem service value, social and cultural values and found that all six major values listed in the HCVF Malaysia Toolkit (2009) are present.
The Masama (in-part) FPMU is adjacent to Bukit Mersing National Park at the east border (HCV1.1). A significant number of HCV biodiversity species are present in the study area and surrounding. There were also signs of critically endangered (CR), endangered (EN), vulnerable (VU) and nearly threatened (NT) flora and fauna (HCV 1.2) observed during the assessment. There are 2 endemic fauna species and 43 flora species found in the study sites (HCV 1.3). Areas for critical temporal use were also identified to be present (HCV 1.4).
The area is an important linkage between larger forest complexes as it surrounded by Licence Planted Forest, National Parks and Forest Management Unit (HCV 2). Lowland Dipterocarp forest cover the whole area and this type of forest becoming rare and endangered as a result of the deforestation and degradation of it ecosystem (HCV 3). The landscape of Masama Plantation is undulating and steep areas with more than 35° slope recorded (HCV 4.1). To ensure that his value is maintained or enhanced, a river buffer prohibiting logging operation is required, and the size of the buffer depends on the size of the river or stream (HCV 4.2). The area at Masama Plantation is potentially a fire prone area as young tree species is very vulnerable to fire and degraded forest at Coupe 8 – 10 are highly susceptible to fire (HCV 4.2). A certified management forest is adjacent to this area (HCV 4.3).
Result of the assessment for social and cultural values suggested that the majority of communities still depend on the forest to some degree. A total of six (6) longhouses are located within and adjacent to Masama Plantation. The communities from the six longhouses, namely Rh. Dilang, Rh. Sempurai, Rh. Mancha, Rh. Anai, Rh. Wan and Rh. Nyatun are depending on the forest available in the area for meeting their basic needs and the forest is critical to theier cultural identity as two burial sites and Bukit Semayang are present (HCV 5 & 6).
Management and monitoring of the six HCVs is carried out are as follows:
Buffer zone of 500 meter wide was established along the boundary bordering with TPA and along riverbanks flowing into TPA
Maintain the no hunting policy and enforce it consistently and high concentration of ERT species should be left alone.
Measures are put in place to ensure the population of endemic fauna and flora continues to exist in FPMU area.
Salt lick areas will not to be disturbed and frequently monitored and buffer zones at salt lick area will be established to protect the saltlicks.
A biological corridor is established for wildlife to move from one part of the forest to another. This biological corridor is demarcated on the ground and map.
Boundaries of shifting agriculture and terrain class IV is mapped and demarcated on the ground.
Forest fire monitoring and prevention plan is establish by adopting the forest fire monitoring and prevention plan from the EIA report.
Adopt the Conflict Resolution Guidelines for Sustainable Forest Management to discuss the community-forest issues.
Proper discussion on the establishment of reserved boundaries around the proposed Pemakai Menoa, Pulau Galau and Temuda has to be done and a written agreement should be prepared and signed once both parties agree on the issue.
Demarcation of agreeable buffer zones of 2 burial sites belongs to Rh. Mancha and Rh. Wan and also Bukit Semayang.
16. RESULT OF FOREST MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT
16.1. Yield Of All Forest Products Harvested
Figure 3.0: Yield of forest product harvested within LPF0019 Masama FPMU
16.2. Growth Rates Of The Planted Forest
Based on data collected from the established PSPs (date of assessment, July 2018), the average MAI for P. falcataria was 8.90m³/ha, meanwhile for A. mangium was 5.26m³/ha.
16.3 Composition And Observed Changes In The Flora And Fauna
The undisturbed forest was confined to buffer zone/wildlife corridor and others protected areas. There is no further study on the changes of flora due to lack of expertise.
The fauna species has been identified by our Surveyor during monthly patrolling. Some of the species cannot be identify due to lack of expertise.
Table 3.0: Fauna observation within Masama FPMU
16.3.3. Environmental And Social Impacts Of Harvesting And Other Operation
220.127.116.11. Environmental impacts
Based on the 1st Quarter 2019 of Environmental Monitoring Report (Ref. No.: NREB/6-3/2G/8), the water qualities in Masama Estate were generally very good with all of the reading found well within the Class IIB standards. The pH level were moderate (Class IIB limit). the DO levels were above 5 mg/l. The BOD and COD levels at Points SSM4 (Middle stretch of Sg. Keritop) and SSM6 (Sg. Engkayau) had exceed the Class IIB limits, ranged between 5 and 36 mg/l (Class III-IV). However, the levers of nutrients and phosphorus were on the low sides at these points. At the same time, the TSS levels at all points were detected very low, ranged between 3 and 9 mg/l and these reading were well below the Class I limit of the NWQSM. The TCC and TFC levels at points SSM5 were detected low, at value ranged from being less than 2 to 23 MPN/100 ml (Class 1). Higher TCC and TFC levels were detected at points SSM3, SSM4 and SSM6 but such reading were well within the Class IIB limits.
Other environment parameters result as below:
Table 4.0: Other environment parameter observation and comments
18.104.22.168. Social impacts
As in February 2019, there were 38 field staff members and 93 general workers (24 locals and 69 foreign workers) employed. A few staff members are staying in the labour quarters.
No major communicable or vector-borne diseases or major occupational accidents had been detected or reported within this quarter.
There are no major complaints, land disputes or conflict encountered between local communities and FPMU since 2017 until June 2019.
16.3.4 High Conservation Value Area (HCVA) monitoring result
16.3.5 Cost and productivity of forest management
Cost and productivity of the company’s operation was confidential. Please refer to the management for details and information.
17. LIAISON COMMITTEE
Liaison committee responsibility is as below:
Issues over tenure claims and use rights.
Conflicts pertaining to the recognition of the legal and customary rights of the local communities.
Measures threaten or diminish resources or tenure rights of the local communities.
Protected the sites with special cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance to the local people.
Long term social and economic well-being of forest workers and local communities.
Grievances and provide fair compensation in case of loss or damage affecting the legal customary rights or livelihoods of local people.
The use of the forests’ multiple products and services to ensure economic viability with the environmental and social benefits.
Carry out annual consultation to maintain the long-term social and economic well-being of local communities
18. COLLABORATIONS & RESEARCH
Some studies will be parts of our research activities in this tree plantation project. Shin Yang Forestry Sdn Bhd with collaboration of Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC) and University Putra Malaysia (UPM) under MoU signed in 2012. Further research will be carried out for technical development of tropical tree plantation. The planned studies are as follows:
Silviculture scheme and yield
To determine the best harvesting time
Biological disease control without agrochemicals
Other items in MoU:
Permanent Sample Plot management
Biological control and protection
Study on carbon foot print
Research and Development on Nursery, Tree Plantation and Reforestation
Nursery practice and planted forest establishment
Plant propagation techniques
Biological control and protection
Annual budget includes the expenses of overall operations and activities namely; Nursery, Land preparation, Planting & Supply, Silviculture, Harvesting, Conservation & Monitoring, Transport & Infrastructure including social program, Amenities for workers, Safety, Staff training, research development etc.